This book makes a major contribution to educational research and literature in exploring process of educational reform in the period of Political transition in Palestine. It is aimed at describing the journey of changing Palestinian primary education and the legacy of establishing the first national education system in Palestine as well as the introduction of a number of educational reforms. The introduction of new educational reforms was urgently needed in order to achieve quality education in Palestinian schools. This was particularly crucial after the prolonged military occupation, which left the education system in a perilous situation and lowered education achievements for a whole generation. The book explores an attempt to retrieve Palestinian education after a prolonged period of military occupation and to rescue the education system from collapsing. It tells the story of reshaping national identity and reviving Palestinian heritage and culture. Therefore, this book is the first one of its kind that captures the story of education reform against a background of struggle that should not be forgotten. It documents a unique period of time in Palestinian history and highlights the beginning of an education system in Palestinians’ hands. Moreover, this book presents real life stories from Palestinian schools and shows the real struggle over power and control in the education system in Palestine.